Diabetes can increase your risk of dehydration—especially if you’re not yet aware of it. When blood sugar levels are too high, your body peer-pressures your kidneys into producing more urine to get rid of the excess glucose, says Heather Rosen, MD, medical director of UPMC Urgent Care North Huntingdon in Pennsylvania. “Frequent urination, another common symptom, will bring on thirst,” she adds. “This leads to drinking more fluids, which compounds the problem.” If you experience excessive thirst and urination, as well as other symptoms like unexplained weight loss, fatigue, or irritability, your doc can carry out a blood glucose test to find out if you have diabetes.
2. Diabetes Insipidus
Although diabetes insipidus isn’t related to the diabetes we know and loathe, it does share some of the same signs and symptoms, such as dehydration and a busy bladder. Diabetes insipidus is characterized by ahormone imbalance in your body that affects water absorption. Because you end up losing vast amounts of water through your urine and have no say in the matter, thirst strikes as your body tries to compensate for the fluid loss, says Prudence Hall, MD, founder and medical director of The Hall Center in Santa Monica. Since there are several types of diabetes insipidus and it can be caused by other conditions, your doctor will perform a variety of tests to determine which treatment option is best for you.
3. Your Period
During the great flood, you may feel the urge to suck up water like a Shop Vac. Don’t worry: It’s totally normal. “Estrogen and progesterone levels can both affect fluid volume,” says Rosen. “Add to that blood loss from the cycle itself (especially if your periods are on the heavy side), and the result is a compensatory increase in thirst.” In other words, when you’re stranded in PMS land, make sure you keep a bottle of water handy.
4. Dry Mouth
Dry mouth, also known as xerostomia, is often mistaken for excessive thirst. “It’s an abnormal dryness of the mucous membranes in the mouth, due to a reduction of the flow or change in the composition of saliva,” says Rosen. If your glands aren’t making enough saliva, it can lead to other pesky symptoms like bad breath, trouble chewing, and thick, stringy saliva. Dry mouth can be a side effect of prescription medications, as well as allergy medicines (Benadryl or Claritin) and dizziness or motion sickness medications (Antivert or Dramamine), says Hahn. “There are also several diseases that can cause dry mouth, so this is always worth bringing up with your doctor,” she adds.
Ongoing or sudden blood loss—thanks to issues like heavy periods and bleeding ulcers—is the most common cause of anemia. Your body loses red blood cells faster than they can be replaced, and will try to make up for the fluid loss by triggering thirst, says Rosen. “A very common-yet-unrecognized cause of heavy periods is low thyroid conditions,” says Hall. “Up to 70 percent of people experience some degree of thyroid deficiency, which translates to a large number of very thirsty women.” (Learn how to tell if your thyroid is out of whack.) A physical exam and blood test will determine whether or not you have anemia, and the treatment you receive will depend on the type you’re diagnosed with.
6. Low Blood Pressure
“Chronic stress causes our adrenal glands to under function, which may result in low blood pressure when the stress is severe,” says Hall. “This can cause dizziness, depression, anxiety, and also extreme thirst.” Thirst is your body’s way of adding more water to your blood, in an attempt to raise your blood pressure. Really, the only long-term solution for this is to decrease and better manage your stress.
7. Your Diet
“Foods that have a diuretic effect (think celery, asparagus, beets, lemon, melon, ginger, and parsley) can make you thirsty because they cause you to urinate more,” says Jessica Cording, RD, a dietician at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York. “Though these foods have a lot of health benefits, consider this effect yet another reason to incorporate a wide variety of fruits and veggies into your diet: You’ll cover your nutritional bases and keep your thirst in check.” You can also balance the scales by eating more fluid-rich foods, like oatmeal and brown rice, which soak up water during the cooking process.